哥伦比亚和中国政府之间关于贸易的经济合作协定

Economic Cooperation Agreement between the Colombian and Chinese governments for the extension of goods traded

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哥伦比亚可能无意加入中国的”一带一路”倡议,但总统伊万·杜克在最近的国事访问中表示,他仍然希望两国之间建立更好的经济联系,因为他寻求为石油以外的产品打开市场。

在杜克访问之前,自2012年胡安·曼努埃尔·桑托斯总统和胡锦涛会晤以来,哥伦比亚领导人一直没有访问中国。

中国重视两国元首之间的接触,把两国元首接触作为国际外交和建立信任的核心支柱,因此近年来不进行互访有助于解释两国有限的经济关系。

哥伦比亚贸易与投资顾问戴维·佩雷斯(David Pérez)表示:”我们与之交谈的中国机构和商人强调,哥伦比亚政府已经7年没有访问中国了,他们对这次访问非常积极和高兴。

大宗商品繁荣

中国是几个拉美国家的主要贸易伙伴,但哥伦比亚在促进经济联系方面一直落后。调查发现,很难识别中国市场想要的石油和矿产以外的产品,这意味着出口没有多样化。
石油在哥伦比亚对华出口总额中所占的份额。

根据国家统计行政部的数据,石油占哥伦比亚对华出口的77.8%,在2017年至2018年间几乎翻了一番,从22亿美元增至40亿美元。金属和铁镍占18.6%,其余5.5%的出口由咖啡、糖和原甘油组成。

七年前,桑托斯总统还带着十几份备忘录回来了,但是缺乏认真的后续行动。

桑托斯在2012年的访问承诺把重点放在农业和增值工业产品上,这些产品可以帮助利用哥伦比亚农村的发展。在北京访问期间,桑托斯宣布了与中国达成自由贸易协定的第一步,但该协议从未实现。

伍德罗·威尔逊中心的政治学家本杰明·克罗伊茨费尔特说:”杜克总统访问期间签署的协议有望改善双边关系。”然而,重要的是要记住,七年前,桑托斯总统还带回了十几份备忘录,但缺乏对商定问题的认真后续行动,”他补充道。

杜克和桑托斯的大部分时间都一样,但回来时确实有一些好消息。

哈斯鳄梨的植物检疫要求获得批准,这已经酝酿了一段时间,是最具体的进展。过去五年,中国水果消费量增长了30倍,成为智利、墨西哥和秘鲁的有利可图的出口产品。然而,这种繁荣也引起了人们对用水的担忧。

近年来,哥伦比亚的鳄梨种植发展迅速。对于经过几十年的暴力之后试图重建经济的农村地区来说,它被认为是一个理想的产品,但发展一直很缓慢。

哥伦比亚出口商最大的失望是牛肉、猪肉和鸡肉的出口许可证被推迟,这些许可证已经通过审批程序近十年了。这使得哥伦比亚无法效仿该地区其他国家,这些国家从中国对动物蛋白的高需求中获利。

杜克还宣布同意将咖啡出口量增加一倍或三倍,以帮助满足中国消费的强劲增长。哥伦比亚是世界上最大的优质咖啡生产国,但迄今为止,它一直错失了向中国销售的机会,多年来一直坚持销售劣质咖啡,如速溶咖啡。

哥伦比亚政府还希望将香蕉出口量乘以13倍,因为香蕉出口量正在大增。2017年至2018年间,中国对华销量翻了两番,从398吨增至1600吨。

哥伦比亚也是世界领导者的花卉市场,也在出口商中引起热情。

“在商业一级的访问的最大影响是,在总统的讲话中强调了产品。将产品定位到这样一种方式非常重要,因为中国人在谈论哥伦比亚时,他们谈论鲜花,”佩雷斯说,他也是Prime Flowers的总经理,该公司向中国出口哥伦比亚花卉。

Colombia may not be interested in joining China’s Belt and Road Initiative but President Iván Duque showed during his recent state visit that he still wants better economic ties between the countries as he sought to open markets for products other than oil.

Until Duque’s trip, a Colombian leader had not visited China since 2012 when presidents Juan Manuel Santos and Hu Jintao met.

China values contact between heads of state as a central pillar of international diplomacy and building trust, so the absence of visits in recent years helps explain the countries’ limited economic relations.

“Chinese institutions and businessmen with whom we spoke stressed that the Colombian government had not visited China for seven years and they were very positive and happy about the visit,” says David Pérez, a Beijing-based Colombian trade and investment consultant.

Commodities boom

China is the main trading partner for several Latin American countries, but Colombia has lagged behind in fostering economic ties. It has found it difficult to identify products other than oil and minerals that the Chinese market wants, meaning exports haven’t diversified.78%
the share of oil in Colombia’s total exports to China.

Oil accounts for 77.8% of Colombia’s exports to China, almost doubling between 2017 and 2018 from US$2.2 billion to US$4 billion, according to figures from the National Administrative Department of Statistics. Metals and ferronickel account for 18.6% , with the remaining 5.5% of exports made up of coffee, sugar and raw glycerol.

seven years ago President Santos also came back with a dozen memos, but there was a lack of serious follow-up

Santos’ visit in 2012 promised a focus on agriculture and value-added industrial products that can help leverage the development of the Colombian countryside. During that Beijing visit, Santos announced the first steps for a free trade agreement with China, which never materialised.

“The agreements signed during President Duque’s visit hold promise for improving bilateral relations,” says political scientist Benjamin Creutzfeldt of the Woodrow Wilson Centre. “However, it is important to remember that seven years ago President Santos also came back with a dozen memos, but there was a lack of serious follow-up on the agreed issues,” he adds.

Duque covered much of the same ground as Santos but did return with some good news.

The approval of phytosanitary requirements for the Hass avocado, which have been in the pipeline for some time, was the most concrete advance. Consumption of the fruit has increased 30-fold in China over the past five years, making it a lucrative export for Chile, Mexico and Peru. The boom, however, also raised concerns about water usage.

Avocado cultivation in Colombia has grown rapidly in recent years. It’s considered an ideal product for rural regions trying to rebuild their economies after decades of violence, but development has been slow.

The biggest disappointment for Colombian exporters was the postponement of export permits for beef, pork and chicken, which have been going through the approval process for nearly a decade. This has prevented Colombia from following other countries in the region that have profited from high Chinese demand for animal protein.

Duque also announced agreements to double or triple coffee exports to help meet strong growth in consumption in China. Colombia is the world’s largest producer of premium coffee but it has so far missed the opportunity to sell to China, insisting for years on selling lower quality coffees, such as instant.

The Colombian government also wants to multiply by thirteen the volume of banana exports, which is enjoying a bonanza. Between 2017 and 2018, the country quadrupled sales to China from 398 to 1,600 tonnes.

The flower market, in which Colombia is also a world leader, is also generating enthusiasm among exporters.

“The greatest impact of the visit at the commercial level is that the product was highlighted in the President’s speech. It is very important to position the product in such a way that, when the Chinese talk about Colombia, they talk about flowers,” says Pérez, who is also general manager of Prime Flowers, a company that exports Colombian flowers to China.

杜克总统在最近的正式访问中寻求使哥伦比亚对华出口多样化(哥伦比亚总统形象)
President Duque sought to diversify Colombia’s exports to China on a recent official visit (image Presidency of Colombia)

丰富的石油,没有多少太阳能

具有讽刺意味的是,尽管哥伦比亚坚持将与中国的贸易重点放在化石燃料上,但它却未能利用该国可再生能源产业的快速发展。
哥伦比亚48万人口中缺乏永久的电力。

访问期间,杜克总统宣布,中国捐赠了3000块太阳能电池板,以改善能源基础设施薄弱地区的1500户家庭的能源获取。

这一宣布对促进太阳能电池板贸易显然具有吸引力,但哥伦比亚迄今在推广替代能源方面一直犹豫不决。部分原因在于,它70%的电力来自水力发电,并且具有相对”清洁”的能量矩阵。

哥伦比亚有200万人缺乏电力,约4%的人口,国家可以通过中国的技术帮助缓解能源贫困。

2016年与游击队组织哥伦比亚革命武装力量(FARC)达成的以农村发展为重点的和平协议的章节强调了为受冲突影响的地区通电的必要性。杜克一直对该协议持批评态度,并在2018年的总统竞选中反对该协议。

“这笔捐款显示了中国作为全球最大的太阳能电池板生产国对哥伦比亚市场的兴趣。这不是一笔巨大的捐款,但它也不是一笔小捐款,”可再生能源顾问、哥伦比亚可再生能源协会前主任亚历杭德罗·卢西奥说。

哥伦比亚想要中国的道路 – 和游客

哥伦比亚不是中国旗舰”一带一路”倡议(BRI)的一部分,该倡议寻求通过改善连通性,加强参与国家和地区之间的经济和政治合作。尽管如此,杜克还是试图吸引更多的中国投资哥伦比亚的基础设施。

具体来说,杜克宣布投资4亿美元,投资3月2日公路项目,该项目将连接第二城市麦德林和靠近巴拿马边境的加勒比海沿岸的乌拉贝湾。

他还宣布,中国公司打算竞购拖延已久的波哥大地铁等项目,恢复哥伦比亚最长的马格达莱纳河的通航能力。

中国驻哥伦比亚大使李年平(LiNianping)没有表示哥伦比亚希望签署《金砖四国协议》。然而,外交部长卡洛斯·霍姆斯·特鲁希略在这个问题上仍然回避和含糊其辞。杜克的访问未能说明问题。

其他公告更令人困惑。在哥伦比亚-中国经济与商业论坛的启动仪式上,杜克说:”我来和你们讨论具体和具体的问题,我们可以在未来几年取得什么成就,我们可以在一年、二年、十年和今后四十年内取得什么成就。我向你们发出邀请的是,在未来一年里,我们可以建立中国和哥伦比亚之间的第一个直飞航班。

这将打破世界上最长的商业飞行纪录,目前多哈和奥克兰之间有17.5小时,这两个城市相距14,529公里。波哥大和上海之间的距离为15,706公里。

根据哥伦比亚移民局的统计,2017年中国到哥伦比亚旅游人数迅速增加,登记入境人数为16,879人。鸟类摄影等有利可图的市场已经开放。

在杜克访问中国科技公司百度期间,承诺在其平台上推广哥伦比亚作为旅游目的地。

Plentiful oil, not much solar

Ironically, while Colombia insists on focusing its trade with China on fossil fuels, it has not been able to take advantage of the country’s rapid development of renewable energy industries.2,000,000
of Colombia’s 48 million population lack permanent access to electricity.

During his visit, President Duque announced that China had donated 3,000 solar panels to improve energy access for 1,500 homes in regions with poor energy infrastructure.

The announcement was an obvious appeal to boost the trade in solar panels but Colombia has so far been very hesitant to promote alternative energy sources. This is partly because it derives 70% of its electricity from hydropower and has a comparatively ‘clean’ energy matrix.

Two million people lack access to electricity in Colombia, some 4% of the population and the state could help alleviate energy poverty with Chinese technology.

The chapter of the 2016 peace agreement with guerrilla group FARC that focused on rural development highlighted the need to electrify conflict-affected regions. Duque has been critical of the agreement and campaigned against it in his 2018 presidential bid.

“The donation shows China’s interest in the Colombian market as the world’s largest producer of solar panels. It is not a huge donation, but neither is it a minor one,” says Alejandro Lucio, executive director of Óptima Consultores, a renewable energy consultant and former director of Colombia’s Renewable Energy Association.

Colombia wants Chinese roads – and tourists

Colombia is not part of China’s flagship Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), which seeks greater economic and political cooperation among participating countries and regions though improved connectivity. Nonetheless, Duque tried to attract greater Chinese investment in Colombian infrastructure.

Specifically, Duque announced a US$400 million China Development Bank investment in the Mar 2 road project, which will connect second city Medellín with the Gulf of Urabá on the Caribbean coast, near the border with Panama.

He also announced that Chinese companies intend to bid for projects such the long-delayed Bogotá subway andrestoring the navigability of the Magdalena River, Colombia’s longest.

With no indication that Colombia wanted to sign up to the BRI, Li Nianping, China’s ambassador to Colombia, urged the government to join. However, foreign minister Carlos Holmes Trujillo has remained evasive and vague on the issue. Duque’s visit failed to provide any clarity.

Other announcements caused more bewilderment. During the launch of the Colombia-China Economic and Commercial Forum, Duque said: “I have come to talk to you about specific and concrete issues, what we can achieve in the next few years, what we can achieve in a year, in two, in ten and in the next four decades. My invitation to you is that in the coming year, we can establish the first direct flight between China and Colombia.”

This would beat the record for the world’s longest commercial flight, which is currently 17.5 hours between Doha and Auckland, two cities which are 14,529 kilometres apart. The distance between Bogotá and Shanghai is 15,706 kilometres.

Chinese tourism to Colombia has increased rapidly, with 16,879 visitors registered in 2017, according to statistics from national immigration agency Migration Colombia. Profitable markets such as bird photography have opened up.

During Duque’s visit Chinese technology company Baidu, pledged to promote Colombia as a tourist destination on its platform.

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